Friday, 27 November 2009

Correct Pre, During and Post Workout Nutrition

So I met this guy, Jarrad Wyett, the other day. We had a really interesting discussion about nutrition. I mentioned that I have been using Infinit products, Pre post and during races. I also explained that I favour their no solids approach both for ease of function, carrying them around and getting an instant hit when I need it, especially when I have low blood sugar; however what we agreed and discussed at length was that nutrition is very personal. Anyway Jarrad said that he would send me something...... and here it
Pre Workout Nutrition:
Correct nutrition is a fundamental part of any exercise enthusiast. Without proper nutrition throughout the entire day you won’t make any serious gains. While acknowledging nutrition is a fundamental part of any training program, pre, during and post nutrition is paramount. The following information on pre, during and post nutrition is not rocket science but rather tried and tested knowledge to maximise your results.
Pre-Workout Nutrition

Two Objectives prior to a workout:

1.) Having a meal 1½ hours before training (This time can vary depending on your metabolism, amount of food consumed, how you feel when you train, etc.).

2.) Taking a proper supplement 30mins before (Protein, carbohydrates and branch chain amino acids are a great idea).

Pre-Workout Meal (Should Contain):

Carbohydrates are the main source energy in a workout. Consume moderate to low glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates as they will fuel your body with energy throughout the entire workout. If you only eat high GI carbohydrates before a workout, you will have a lot of energy at the start and little energy at the end.
Some great sources include brown rice, brown bread, lentils, sweet potatoes, whole-wheat pasta and traditional oatmeal.
Many fruits have a moderate GI, including dried fruit. The lowest GI fruits include cherries (25), apples (36) and pears (36).

Glycemic Index Range
Low GI = 55 or less Medium GI = 56-69 High GI = 70+

Protein: Is the essential building blocks of muscles. Without it, your muscles would not grow. Protein also ensures proper nitrogen balances in the muscle for growth and repair. Some excellent sources of protein include eggs, chicken, turkey and fish (Tuna & Salmon). Ensuring protein is part of your pre-workout meal and directly before in the form of a whey powder is ideal.

Fats: EFA (essential fatty acids) are necessary for maintaining high testosterone levels, energy levels and obtaining fat soluble vitamins. However fats slow food absorption and you don't want food nutrient uptake being slowed down before a workout. So fats pre-workout should be limited for those that are hungry all the time and those that train for 100+ minutes. Olive oil, peanut butter, nuts and egg yolks are all sources.

Pre-workout Supplements
Creatine: Enables trainees to train more intensely, for longer time periods and has been shown to assist with recovery.
Caffeine: A widely used stimulate which increases energy levels and if stacked with Ephedrine HCL is an excellent fat burner. Studies have shown that caffeine enhances performance specifically in weight training.

L-Glutamine: An important non-essential amino acid that prevents muscle catabolism. Studies have shown it increases growth hormone levels and assists in muscle recovery by maintaining cell hydration.

BCAA (Branched Chain Amino Acids):
Assists with anabolism by slowing fatigue while the trainee performs and significant prevention of muscle catabolism. Strengthening of the immune system is another benefit apart from the all important prevention of muscle catabolism.

Energy/Mental Focus:
B-vitamins, guarana and ginseng. A balanced B-vitamin helps convert the carbohydrates consumed into energy. It is key that B-vitamins aren’t taken singularly (B1 or B2) because vitamins don't work alone in the body. Bananas are full of B-vitamins, along with brewers yeast (natures highest source of B-vitamins). Guarana and ginseng are herbal supplements that can improve energy levels, alertness and mental focus if taken in moderation.

Meal Examples:

Pre-Workout Meal #1: Chicken and Rice
■1 Cup pasta sauce ■1 Chicken breast ■Vegetables ■1 cup brown rice

Pre-Workout Meal #2: Turkey Burger
■Whole wheat bun ■Non-fat turkey burger ■Cheese ■Salad

Pre-Workout Meal #3: Hot Oats
■1 cup traditional oats ■1 ½ cups of skim milk ■1 pear sliced
During Workout Nutrition
During your workout avoid eating to let your body concentrate on the workout and not on ingesting food. Instead consume water. Water is vital to stay hydrated during a workout and enable maximum muscle contraction. Creatine and BCAA’s can be added to your workout water to assist performance and nutrient uptake by your muscles.

Protein Shakes: A protein shake is not a good idea as blood will be directed to the stomach for digestion. This will result in less blood being available for the working muscles where it is needed the most.

Sports Drinks: Only needed if doing vigorous exercise over 1 ½ hours, to replace lost carbohydrates and salts.
Post-Workout Nutrition

Two objectives to post workout nutrition:

1.) Fuelling your body immediately after a workout and fuelling your body 1½ hours after. The goal is to use proper nutrients to assist with recovery; replenish glycogen, amino acids and hydration levels.

2.) Creating an anabolic environment to maximise results from the training stimulus.

Immediately After a Workout:

Following a workout a liquid meal in the form of a recovery shake is one of the most effective methods to optimise nutrient uptake, due to rapid absorption rates. The primary aims being to:
1.) Replace 2.) Stop 3.) Elevate

1.) Replace Glycogen Stores

 By replenishing glycogen you will be creating an insulin spike. Insulin is highly anabolic, fuelling muscle growth and slowing anabolism of muscle tissue.
 Refined types of carbohydrates work best, including dextrose (aka glucose) and maltodextrin. This is because they are both digested rapidly and replenish glycogen stores quickly. A mix of both dextrose and maltodextrin is more potent compared to using just one type, as they activate different transport mechanisms within the digestive tract.
 .8 - 1 grams of carbohydrates per kg of body mass.

** Insulin:
If you keep creating insulin spikes, then your insulin sensitivity will decrease. This means your muscles have had too much glycogen shoved into them too often so the muscles will start rejecting the glycogen. Keeping insulin spikes to 2-3 per day will ensure insulin response is not desensitized and maximise the sensitivity of the muscles cells to uptake nutrients post-workout. If high GI foods are consumed regularly less insulin will be produced every time, eventually shutting down insulin production altogether (Diabetes!). The less insulin you produce the less protein synthesis will occur. Therefore by consuming moderate to low GI carbohydrates at the majority of meals, when you do consume high GI carbohydrates your insulin response will be far more significant, as will those muscle gains.**
2.) Stop Muscle Breakdown
 Consumption of protein is essential to stop protein breakdown, repair muscles and build new muscle.
 The 2:1 carbohydrate to protein ratio, boosts insulin levels twice as much compared to carbohydrates alone. Insulin is vital as it opens up blood vessels in your muscles, meaning more nutrients such as amino acids and carbohydrates where their needed.
 .4 grams of protein per kg of body mass.

Bulking Stage Ratio - 2:1 Carbohydrate : Protein mix
Cutting Stage Ratio - 1:1 Carbohydrate : Protein mix

3.) Elevate Protein Synthesis

 Training stress causes small tears in muscle fibres and connective tissue. This training stress and the proper intake of foods such as a quality protein powder, will provide a boost in protein synthesis (boost in muscle growth). Studies have shown that BCAA supplementation in combination with an insulin spike can dramatically increase protein synthesis within the body.

** Recovery:
As a result of the tearing and breakdown of the muscle tissue, the body needs help to repair this damage. So fluids begin to build up to transport immune cells to the torn muscle debris. While these go to work, free radicals build up. Free radicals are chemically very unstable meaning they bond to anything. They can breakdown muscle tissue and further damage it causing a longer recovery. That is why anti-oxidants are a good thing to keep in mind.
Anti-oxidants bond to these free radicals so they won't bond to your muscle tissue and break it down. Green tea and vitamin C supplements are good anti-oxidants to assist with the recovery process.**

Post Workout Shake:
 Whey Protein Isolate (.4 grams per kg of body mass)
 High GI Carbohydrates: Dextrose & Maltodextrin (.8 grams per kg of body mass)
 BCAA (3-5 grams)
 Creatine (3-5 grams)
 Anti-Oxidants (Vitamin C & E)
 L-Glutamine (3-5 grams)
 Sodium (A pinch will help with electrolyte levels and help make an isotonic solution to improve hydration)
 H20 500ml to 1 litre (H2O for rehydration of cells. Avoid milk as it can slow the uptake of nutrients)

** Instead of pouring the whole thing down your throat after your workout, have half immediately after. After 15mins, the second half should be consumed slowly over the next 1/2 hour to give a sustained influx of protein. The initial hour flowing a workout is key to maximising results by consuming proper nutrients.**

1-2 Hours After Workout:

Consume an actual meal consisting of low to moderate GI foods. Do not create an insulin spike here, as it is better off creating an insulin spike (remember 2-3 max per day) in the morning and directly after training. An ideal meal following a workout should be similar to that of other meals throughout the day. Consume a variety of natural unprocessed foods with a balance of carbohydrate, protein and fat.

Examples of foods to consume include:

 H20 (creatine, caffeine dehydrate body)
 Pasta & Whole wheat breads
 Sweet potatoes & Vegetables
 Brown rice
 Chicken, Fish or lean red meat
 Eggs
 Nuts (almonds)
Final Word:
Eat quality food, food that has little or no processing what so ever. While it may seem hard at the start it will soon become part of your lifestyle and the results will come. Training is the fun part of it all, with the nutrition aspect being the hardest part of any serious training program. All the training in the world will not enable you to achieve your goals unless you have nutrition in place throughout the day. And to disregard proper pre, during and post nutrition will limit your success altogether.

Jarrad Wyett
November 2009

1 comment:

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